Italy Scientific and Cultural Institutes

Under the archive entries; library; gallery; museum; academy, the historical and technical discussion of the various Italian scientific and cultural institutes is carried out and under the items dedicated to the individual cities of Italy the current and descriptive enumeration of them: here is a quick general overview of the main Italian cultural bodies which, directly or indirectly, they depend on the central organs of the state, the ministries (in particular that of national education), which also contribute with their consultative and technical bodies – superior councils, permanent committees and commissions, laboratories, cabinets, stations experimental, etc. – to knowledge in all its aspects and interests, and in general to the progress of science and culture.

The Italian public archives depend on the Ministry of the Interior, and are divided into: Royal State Archives (that of Bologna established in 1874; of Cagliari, 1763; of Florence, 1852; of Genoa, 1817; of Lucca, 1859; of Massa , 1857; from Milan, 1785; from Modena, 1461; from Naples, 1808; from Palermo, 1814; from Parma, 1592; from Reggio Emilia, 1892; from Rome, 1871; from Siena, 1858; from Turin, 14th century ; from Trento, 1919; from Trieste, 1926; from Venice, 1819; from Zara, 1624); provincial state archives (in some provincial capitals of Naples and Sicily); provincial, municipal, ecclesiastical, family archives, etc.

Libraries depend on the specific general direction of the Ministry of National Education, and can be divided into: governmental or state, provinces and municipalities, cultural bodies, and private ones. The state are grouped into:  a ) national or central (that of Florence, founded in 1714; the Braidense of Milan, 1770; the Vittorio Emanuele III of Naples, 1734; that of Palermo, 1782; the Vittorio Emanuele II of Rome, 1875 ; the Marciana of Venice, 1468); b) simply called governmental, with or without its own appellation (that of Cremona, 1774; the Marucelliana, 1702, the Mediceo-Laurenziana, 1571 and the Riccardiana, end of the 16th century, of Florence; that of Gorizia, 1822; the Palatina of Parma , 1769; that of Lucca, of the seventeenth century; the Angelica, 1614, the Casanatense, 1700, the Medica, 1925, that of the Risorgimento, 1917 and the Vallicelliana, 1581, of Rome); c ) university libraries (including the Estense of Modena and the Alessandria of Rome, 1667); d ) libraries annexed to state bodies (of the Chamber of Deputies, the Senate, ministries, academies and academic institutes); And) of the provinces and municipalities: among the most noteworthy, of the Archiginnasio of Bologna, 1801; the Queriniana of Brescia, 1743; the Federiciana of Fano, 1681; the Communal of Ferrara, 1746; the Berio of Genoa, 1775; the Labronica of Livorno, 1817; the Municipalities of Mantua, 1780; of Padua, sec. XII; of Palermo, 1760; of Perugia, sec. XVII; of Siena, 1750; of Trento, sec. XVIII; of Udine, 1827; of Verona, 1792, etc .; f ) the civic or municipal (of Milan, 1890; of Reggio Emilia, 1796; of Rovereto, 1764; of Turin, 1869; of Trieste, 1796; the Oliveriana of Pesaro, 1793; the Forteguerriana of Pistoia, 1450; the Classense of Ravenna, 1710; the Gambalunghiana of Rimini, 1619; the Bertoliana of Vicenza, 1696); h) of regional cultural bodies, foundations or religious corporations: the Zelantea of ​​Acireale, around 1670; of the Fraternity of the laity in Arezzo, 1603; of the Abbey of SS. Trinity of Cava; the Malatestiana of Cesena, 1452; the Ambrosiana, 1609; that of Montecassino; the Antoniana, sec. XIII, of Padua; of the Seminary of Padua, 1671; de Concordi of Rovigo, 1580; of Santa Scolastica in Subiaco; the Querini-Stampalia, 1870 in Venice; the Capitular in Verona; i ) or finally of princely families (such as the Trivulziana of Milan, XVIII century) or of private individuals. We have listed among the penultimate some ecclesiastical libraries which, according to the Concordat, depend directly on the Holy See, which has the Vatican Apostolic as its central library (see Vatican).

Among the museums, which, if they mainly or exclusively have paintings, take the name of galleries, art galleries, picture galleries according to their importance and location, they distinguish themselves with respect to the quality of the collections: the archaeological or antiquities, the distinctly artistic or medieval ones and modern, numismatists, lapidaries or epigraphers, the Egyptian collections of Turin, etc .; Etruscans of Florence, Cortona, etc .; Oriental in Genoa, Venice, etc. plaster casts or plaster casts, etc .; with respect to their quantity and variety, the national, regional, provincial, municipal or civic, domes, factories, etc .; with respect to their dependence and administration, the governmental or royal ones, those belonging to provinces, municipalities, chapters, abbeys, sanctuaries, etc. Are royals: the Archaeological of Ancona, the Art Gallery of Bologna, the Archaeological of Cividale, in Florence the Royal Archaeological Museum, the Uffizî and Palatine Galleries, the National Museum and that of San Marco, the National Museum of Messina, the Royal Numismatic Cabinet of Brera in Milan, Pinacoteca, Estense Museum and Medagliere in Modena , the National Museum of Naples and that of Palermo, the Museum of Antiquities and Art Gallery of Parma, the National Museums and Galleries of Rome, the National of Taranto, RR. Turin Museum and Art Gallery, RR. Venice Galleries etc. There are more than 300 museums in Italy, some very famous, many quite well-known, many small and not very well known, although these are not lacking in relics, singularly important for the history or for the local arts, such as the International Museum of ceramics in Faenza. It is hardly necessary to mention the grandiose famous Vatican Museums,

The supervision and protection of libraries and museums, of collections held by the state or in any case within the limits of the state, of public and even private property, the inventorying of art objects of a national nature or importance, are exercised by the government through special superintendents dependent on the Ministry of National Education; through the directors of local government institutes, and also through a network of honorary, bibliographic, archaeological and fine arts inspectorates.

The function of elaborating and illustrating the cultural elements, memories and documents of the past, to promote and disseminate knowledge, to the construction of the science of nature and the spirit, belongs on the one hand to the teaching institutions and on the other to those of research and constructive activity of human knowledge, that is, at the school and at the academy or association of scientific work properly so-called. The state didactic organization is mentioned on p. 787; this is about scientific associations.

The following are academies of recognized national character and so-called directorial appointments: the Royal Academy of Italy in Rome, the Royal Academy of Sciences of the Institute of Bologna; the R. Accademia della Crusca for the language of Italy in Florence; the R. Lombard Institute of Sciences and Letters of Milan; the Royal Society of Naples; the Royal Academy of Sciences, Letters and Fine Arts of Palermo; the Italian Society of Sciences, known as the XL, in Rome; the Royal National Academy of the Lincei; the Royal Academy of Sciences of Turin; the Veneto Institute of Sciences, Letters and Arts in Venice. To these are added in the major and minor centers: associations with scientific purposes, those with technical and economic purposes, bodies and associations for hygiene and public assistance, with an aim between theoretical and practical, professional associations and category, bodies and associations for the dissemination of culture in general, in particular for historical research, i.e. special bodies and companies for history, archeology and fine arts. Eleven Deputations of homeland history (see XII, p. 637) are waiting for the research and publication of historical, regional and national sources, supported by institutes, associations, committees and directorates of historical periodicals, etc., in the smaller offices. The work is coordinated or integrated as far as possible  by the Royal Italian Historical Institute based in Rome.

Alongside the teaching institutes proper, and often annexed to them, there are also particular institutes and laboratories, without didactic function, experimental stations, botanical gardens, etc., which, provided with their own library and often with their own cabinets, await and they collaborate, with theoretical or theoretical-practical purposes, in the research, increase and diffusion of science. All these scientific institutes and laboratories (which today total more than 800 in Italy) can be grouped into three categories: 1. of physical-mathematical and geographical sciences (astronomical, geodetic, geophysical observatories, physics, chemistry, engineering, and experimental laboratories for certain industries); 2. institutes of biology (anthropology, physiology, zoology, botany, etc.), of hygiene and bacteriology, of agriculture (plant pathology, sericulture, zootechnics, etc.); 3. Institutes for the medical sciences For an enumeration and illustration of them, please refer to the sources cited in the bibliography.

Lastly, the international cultural institutes are mentioned which are in large numbers in Italy: for example the International Institute of Agriculture in Rome; foreign institutes founded in Italy, with particular character and purpose, archaeological, artistic, etc. in the main richest centers of culture (Rome, Florence, Naples, Bologna, etc.), from numerous nations of Europe and America; Italian institutes abroad; scientific missions, etc.

Italy Scientific and Cultural Institutes