Science and Culture of China

According to andyeducation, the education system in the PRC includes pre-school education, elementary school (6 grades), 1st grade secondary school (9 grades), high school (12 grades), university, and graduate school. Primary school starts at the age of 6. In addition, there are secondary vocational schools, which are divided into two categories – enrollment of students after graduation from secondary school of the 1st stage (15-16 years old) and after complete secondary school (18-19 years old). The term of study in them is 3-4 years. In technical schools, the term of study is 2-3 years, sometimes 4 years. In full-time universities, training lasts 4-5 years, in medical institutes – 7-8 years. Postgraduate training is divided into two cycles: with a master’s degree (persons up to 40 years old are accepted) and doctors of sciences (up to 45 years old). The duration of postgraduate studies in both cycles is 3 years.

In 2002, 3.21 million students enrolled in universities, in total in the PRC – 9.03 million students. In total, there are 1,225 universities in the PRC with a total number of teachers of 532,000. 200,000 people were admitted to graduate school, a total of 500,000 people studied. 6.77 million students were enrolled in the senior secondary school, with a total enrollment of 16.84 million students. In 2002, for every 10 thousand people. there were 70.3 students, 733 high school students and 946 elementary school students. In the past few years, 300 thousand people have been sent to study abroad. in 103 countries, of which 110 thousand people. returned home after graduation. The PRC also accepts foreign students. Over the past 20 years, 300 thousand people have been accepted. from 152 countries.

Higher professional education and higher education through external studies are being developed. In total, there are 92 such institutes, in which 13 million people study. Distance education is actively developing. K ser. 1990s On the territory of the PRC, a system of distance education has been created, the main link of which is radio and television programs. The terms of study in it are 3 years, 2.31 million graduates were trained, and 1.1 million people are currently studying. In 1994, the creation of the Internet Education and Research Network (CERNET) began. It covers 70 cities, approx. 400 universities. There are 30 universities providing education via the Internet.

In 1978, the Chinese Academy of Sciences was divided into two academies, the Chinese Academy of Sciences, which is engaged in research in the natural sciences, and the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, which is engaged in research in the social sciences and humanities. But if the Chinese Academy of Sciences is more focused on conducting scientific research that enhances the scientific and technological potential of the country and builds up its comprehensive power, then the Academy of Social Sciences is focused on the development of such sciences, which also increase the country’s defense capability and contribute to the social development of society, and Based on these scientific developments, recommendations are being prepared for party and state bodies on the development of certain measures in domestic and foreign policy.

The main efforts in the PRC are focused on the implementation of scientific projects under the “Program of planning research and development of basic technologies”, where China already has certain scientific achievements, and projects under the “863 Program” in the field of applied research in order to reduce the gap in science between China and other countries. countries of the world. In recent years, Chinese science has made especially great strides in such fields as biology, genetic engineering, medicine, communications, and information technology. Such scientific achievements as the creation of a computer microchip for the Dragon-1 processor, the breeding of a high-yielding rice variety with a new genetic code, the successful launch and return to Earth of two spacecraft Shenzhou-3 and Shenzhou-4, as well as technology regeneration of human organs. For the practical implementation of scientific and technological achievements, two programs were created – the China Innovation Fund and the National Program for the Creation of New Types of Development Products, under which funds were allocated for the development of 1318 and 1288 projects, respectively. However, according to the main indicators in the field of the development of science and technology, which determines China’s place in the world, it still belongs to the developing countries, although it has surpassed the world level in some general indicators.

China has two news agencies, Xinhua (New China) and China News Service. The Xinhua state news agency was founded in 1931 as the Red China agency, and from January 1937 it became known as the Xinhua agency. It disseminates daily through the press, radio, and television information in the amount of 50 to 60 thousand words, and for local press organs – up to 10 thousand words; has more than 20 information bureaus in various countries of the world, broadcasts for foreign countries in Chinese, English, French, Spanish, Russian and Arabic with a total volume of 150 thousand words per day, publishes more than 30 newspapers. The Chinese Information Service, established in 1952, is engaged in providing information to Chinese living abroad and publishes daily information bulletins in 10,000 Chinese characters. In total, 2111 central and local newspapers and 8889 magazines are published in China (2001). The main daily newspapers are: the organ of the CPC Central Committee “Renmin Ribao”, “Guangming Ribao” (“Light”) for the intelligentsia, “Gongzhen Ribao” (“Workers’ Newspaper”) – the organ of the CCFP, “Zhongguo Qingnianbao” (“Chinese Youth”) – organ of the KSMK, “Jiefangjun bao” – the organ of the Military Council of the CPC Central Committee, “Jingji Ribao” (“Economic Newspaper”) and the English-language newspaper “China Daily” (“China Daily”). The annual circulation of all-Chinese and provincial newspapers is 23.0 billion copies, magazines – 3 billion copies, 6.8 billion books have been published. In total, there are 3902 archives, where 49.08 million archival materials are open for use. There are 306 radio stations in the country, the main ones being the Central People’s Radio Station and the China International Radio Station, and 360 television stations, the main one being China Central Television. The number of cable television subscribers is 96.38 million people. At the end of 2002 there were 2592 art groups, 2847 cultural palaces, 2689 public libraries, 1451 museums.

Education of China